Brain Research 2009, 1271 : 27-35. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Panagiotakos G, Alshamy G, Chan B, Abrams R, Greenberg E, Saxena A, Bradbury M, Edgar M, Gutin P, Tabar V: Long-Term Impact of Radiation on the Stem Cell and Oligodendrocyte Precursors in the Brain.A thyroid disorder can also cause changes in appearance - for example, changes due to thyroid eye disease, weight gain or loss, or loss of hair - which can damage your self-esteem.
These symptoms can also have an impact on your family and friends so it is important to give them the opportunity to understand what is happening. The symptoms can affect your work so it is important that your employer understands the problem.PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Madeira MD, Cadete-Leite A, Andrade JP, Paula-Barbosa MM: Effects of hypothyroidism upon the granular layer of the dentate gyrus in male and female adult rats: a morphometric study. J Comp Neurol 1991, 314 : 171-186.
Common emotional problems are: Over-activity anxiety - a feeling of nervousness, with butterflies, heart racing, trembling, irritability, sleep difficulties. Under-activity depression - low mood and difficulty enjoying things, tearfulness, and loss of appetite, and disturbed sleep.The same relationships were found when those outside normal levels were excluded from the analysis. Dr. Dayan and colleagues said: Interestingly, no clear association was seen with the Anxiety and Depression Scale, which may suggest that the thyroid function influences parameters of psychological well-being not typical of anxiety or depression.
People may ask awkward questions or stare, which can be distressing. It is sometimes suggested that stressful life events can cause or aggravate a thyroid disorder. If you are already experiencing stress in other areas of life, this can of course contribute to your psychological symptoms if you have a thyroid disorder, and they may.Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2008, 20 :. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Bernal J: Action of thyroid hormone in brain. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 2002, 25 : 268-288. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Aronson R, Offman HJ, Joffe RT, Naylor CD: Triiodothyronine augmentation in the treatment of refractory depression - A meta-analysis.
Pharmacopsychiatry 2003, 36 (Suppl 3) : S215-S221. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Hiroi Y, Kim HH, Ying H, Furuya F, Huang ZH, Simoncini T, Noma K, Ulek K, Nguyen NH, Scanlan TS, et al.: Rapid nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone.Journal of Biological Chemistry 2003, 278 :. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Williams GR: Neurodevelopmental and neurophysiological actions of thyroid hormone. Journal of Neuroendocrinology 2008, 20 : 784-794. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Bauer M, London ED, Rasgon N, Berman SM, Frye MA, Altshuler LL, Mandelkern MA, Bramen J, Voytek B, Woods R, et al.: Supraphysiological doses of levothyroxine alter regional.
Thyroid 1998, 8 : 703-713. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Yen PM: Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Physiological Reviews 2001, 81 :. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Bauer M, London ED, Silverman DH, Rasgon N, Kirchheiner J, Whybrow PC: Thyroid, brain and mood modulation in affective disorder: insights from molecular research and functional brain imaging.According to Dr. Dayan, around five to 10 percent of adults have abnormal thyroid hormone levels, but its usually only very slightly abnormal and studies show that they would gain no benefit from taking thyroxine.
Genes Development 2005, 19 :. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Pilhatsch M, Winter C, Nordström K, Vennström B, Bauer M, Juckel G: Increased depressive behaviour in mice harboring the mutant thyroid receptor alpha 1.Because of this, they recommend that fT4 levels and TSH levels should be taken into account when adjusting hormone therapy dosages, as TSH alone may not be a perfect indicator of well-being.
The participants also filled in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire. Overall, those with higher levels of fT4 had significantly better well-being. This link could not be explained by age or gender.Only one in 100 hypothyroid adults need treatment. References Saravanan, P., Visser, T. and Dayan, C. M. Psychological wellbeing correlates with free T4 but not free T3 levels in patients on thyroid hormone replacement.
All cells in the human body will respond to changes in thyroid hormones with a change in the rate at which they work. A lack of thyroid hormone, hypothyroidism, has long been linked to cognitive and memory problems and mood disorders, possibly through the brain chemical serotonin.They explain that the well-being questionnaire refers more generally to psychological well-being comparing current status to how patients would usually expect to feel. They concluded that differences in fT4 and TSH concentration may determine psychological well-being in hypothyroid patients on medication.
A significant link also was found between lower well-being and higher levels of TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone. This was expected, as higher TSH can indicate thyroid problems. Those with higher fT4 also had less severe symptoms on the Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire, but no links were found with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.Archives of General Psychiatry 1996, 53 : 842-848. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Cooper-Kazaz R, Apter JT, Cohen R, Karagichev L, Muhammed-Moussa S, Grupper D, Drori T, Newman ME, Sackeim HA, Glaser B, et al.: Combined treatment with sertraline and liothyronine in major depression - A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
They are an important part of your illness, not just a side-issue or a sign of weakness. Ask as many questions as you need to in order to understand what is happening to you.First issued: February 2008. Revised October 2011. Our literature is reviewed every two years and revised if necessary.
For many years, thyroid hormones, together with standard medications, have been used to treat depression and both the manic and depressed phases of bipolar disorder. However, the role of these hormones in triggering mood disorders needs further study.Int J Dev Neurosci 2008, 26 : 147-209. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Gur RC, Ragland JD, Reivich M, Greenberg JH, Alavi A, Gur RE: Regional Differences in the Coupling between Resting Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism may Indicate Action Preparedness as a Default State.
Neuropsychopharmacology 2002, 27 : 620-628. PubMed Abstract Publisher Full Text Bauer M, Silverman DH, Schlagenhauf F, London ED, Geist CL, Van Herle K, Rasgon N, Martinez D, Miller K, Van Herle A, et al.: Brain glucose metabolism in hypothyroidism: a positron emission tomography study before and after thyroid hormone replacement therapy.PubMed Abstract Kobiella A, Smolka M: Neuroimaging of nicotine and tobacco smoking in humans. Encyclopedia of Addictive Behaviours 2011. Chapter 261 Lechan RM, Toni R: Thyroid hormones in neural tissue. 2002. Koenig RJ: Thyroid hormone receptor coactivators and corepressors.