Jul 24, 2010. Thyroid hormones enter cells through membrane transporter proteins. growth and metabolism, and deficiency in thyroid hormones is not.
The most severe and devestating form of hypothyroidism is seen in young children with congenital thyroid deficiency. If that condition is not corrected by supplemental therapy soon after birth, the child will suffer from cretinism, a form of irreversible growth and mental retardation.
WomenAnswers. org advises that " excess it is potentially cardiotoxic (damaging to the heart causes angina, cardiac arrhythmia's and palpitations. It will produce osteoporosis, muscle cramps, diarrhea, vomiting, tremors, excitability, insomnia, sweating and muscular weakness." Fluctuations in thyroid levels and metabolism can be controlled with medications.
Thyroxine increases the number and activity of mitochondria in cells by binding to the cells DNA, increasing the basal metabolic rate. Administration of thyroid.
Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium.
Hypothyroidism in particular is commonly associated with infertility. Thyroid Disease States Disease is associated with both inadequate production and overproduction of thyroid hormones. Both types of disease are relatively common afflictions of man and animals.
Therefore the stimulation of uptake of oxygen and glucose in human mononuclear blood cells seems to be dependent on the total concentration of T4 and not on the non-protein bound (free) fraction suggesting active membrane uptake of T4, as the limiting factor for intra-cellular hormone effect.
Too little thyroid hormone, and the individual tends to feel mentally sluggish, while too much induces anxiety and nervousness. Reproductive system : Normal reproductive behavior and physiology is dependent on having essentially normal levels of thyroid hormone.
Another interesting, but rare cause of hyperthyroidism is so-called hamburger thyrotoxicosis. Common signs of hyperthyroidism are basically the opposite of those seen in hypothyroidism, and include nervousness, insomnia, high heart rate, eye disease and anxiety.
Too much thyroid hormone in the bloodstream can create extremes in body weight due to differences in basal metabolic rate. Certain people who don't have a thyroxine deficiency or hypothyroidism have tried using the hormone in an effort to increase their metabolism to lose weight.
A number of plasma membrane transporters have been identified, some of which require ATP hydrolysis; the relative importance of different carrier systems is not yet clear and may differ among tissues.
Graves disease is commonly treated with anti-thyroid drugs (e.g. propylthiourea, methimazole which suppress synthesis of thyroid hormones primarily by interfering with iodination of thyroglobulin by thyroid peroxidase. Advanced and Supplemental Topics).
Thyroid Hormone Receptors. Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones. While not strictly necessary for life, thyroid hormones have profound effects on many "big time" physiologic processes, such as development, growth and metabolism, and deficiency in thyroid hormones is not compatible with normal.
Finally, plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides are inversely correlated with thyroid hormone levels - one diagnostic indiction of hypothyroidism is increased blood cholesterol concentration. Carbohydrate metabolism : Thyroid hormones stimulate almost all aspects of carbohydrate metabolism, including enhancement of insulin-dependent entry of glucose into cells and increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to generate free glucose.
A lack of thyroxine contributes to growth disorders in children, leading to cretinism and hypothyroidism. Too much thyroxine causes a BMR that is too high. This leads to Graves' disease, a condition pertaining to an overactive thyroid.
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