Explain This section includes genomic Reference Sequences (RefSeqs) from all assemblies on which this gene is annotated, such as RefSeqs for chromosomes and scaffolds (contigs) from both reference and alternate assemblies.Serum thyroxine binding prealbumin (TBPA ) levels in various thyroidal states were examined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). This technique is highly sensitive, accurate and reproducible. The normal mean - 2SD) level of serum TBPA is 26.9 /- 8.0 mg/dl (29.4 /- 5.2 in men and 24.9 /- 7.6 mg/dl in women).
Explain These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.
Genomic NG_009490.1 RefSeqGene Range 5001.12258 Download GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_416 mRNA and Protein(s) NM_000371.3 NP_000362.1 transthyretin precursor See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000362.1 Status: REVIEWED Source sequence(s) BC020791, CA948224, DB498675 Consensus CDS CCDS 11899.1 UniProtKB/TrEMBL E9KL36 UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot P02766 Related ENSP, OTTHUMP, ENST, OTTHUMT Conserved Domains (1) summary cd05821 Location: 24 144.Loading of serum with unlabeled T3 results in displacement of more than 50 of 125IT3 from TBPA, as well as from TBG, to albumin. Studies carried out with serum containing diphenylhydantoin (DPH) or MK-185, known inhibitors of T4 binding by TBG, also showed T3 displacement from TBG to TBPA and albumin.
Model RNAs and proteins are also reported here. Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly Genomic NC_000018.10 Reference GRCh38.p2 Primary Assembly Range 31591767.31599024 Download GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics) Alternate CHM1_1.1 Genomic NC_018929.2 Alternate CHM1_1.9038.29106294 Download GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics) Gene LinkOut The following LinkOut resources are supplied by external providers.As a result TBG binds 75 of serum T4, while TTR and HSA binds only 20 and 5, respectively (Table 1). From evolutionary point of view, the three iodothyronine-binding serum proteins developed in reverse order of their affinity for T4, HSA being the oldest (12).
The isoelectric point of normal TBG ranges from pH 4.2 to 4.6, however, this increases to 6 when all sialic acid residues are removed. The protein is very stable when stored in serum, but rapidly loses its hormone binding properties by denaturation at temperatures above 55C and pH below 4. Since TH enters the cell unbound, the concentration of free rather than total hormone reflects more accurately the activity level of TH-dependent processes. Under normal conditions, changes in free hormone level are adjusted by appropriate stimulation or suppression of hormone secretion and disposal.
Serum TBPA levels in pregnant women were significantly lower than in normal females (P less than 0.05). Serum TBPA levels in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism were 12.9 /- 4.0 mg/dl (mean /- SD) and in patients with untreated hypothyroidism were 25.2 /- 4.7 mg/dl (mean /- SD).PubMed OSORIO C, JACKSON DJ, GARTSIDE JM, GOOLDEN AW. The uptake of 131-I triiodothyronine by red cells in relation to the binding of thyroid hormones in plasma proteins. Clin Sci. 1961 Dec; 21 :355365.
The diseases caused by mutations include amyloidotic polyneuropathy, euthyroid hyperthyroxinaemia, amyloidotic vitreous opacities, cardiomyopathy, oculoleptomeningeal amyloidosis, meningocerebrovascular amyloidosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, etc. provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009 Orthologs mouse all Location: 18q12.1 Exon count: 4 Annotation release Status Assembly Chr.Thus it seems logical to assume that one of the functions of T4-binding proteins in serum is to safeguard the body from the effects of abrupt fluctuations in hormonal secretion. The second likely function of T4-binding serum proteins is to serve as an additional protection against iodine wastage by imparting macromolecular properties to the small.
TBG differs from other members of the SERPIN family in having the upper half of the main ß-sheet completely opened. This allows the reactive center peptide loop to move in and out of the sheet, resulting in binding and release of the ligand without cleavage of TBG.1995. Biological properties The TBG molecule has a single iodothyronine binding site with affinity slightly higher for T4 than for T3 (30) (Table 1). Optimal bi.
Its primary structure was deduced in 1989 from the nucleotide sequence of a partial TBG cDNA and an overlapping genomic DNA clones (16). However, it took 17 years to characterize its three dimensional structure by crystallographic analysis (17) (Fig.Thyroxine-binding proteins in the serum of the grey kangaroo. J Endocrinol. 1969 Nov; 45 (3 477478. PubMed Davis PJ, Gregerman RI. Separation of thyroxine(T4)-binding proteins of human serum in polyacrylamide gel at pH 7.4.
1). TBG is synthesized in the liver as single polypeptide chain of 415 amino acids. The mature molecule, minus the signal peptide, is composed of 395 amino acids (44 kD) and four heterosaccharide units with 5 to 9 terminal sialic acids. Abnormal accumulation of amyloid is amyloidosis, a term associated with disease. Disease, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME ) Disease, organism-specific biosystem Biological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions.
PubMed OPPENHEIMER JH, TAVERNETTI RR. Studies on the thyroxine-diphenylhydantoin interaction: effect of 5,5'-diphenylhydantoin on the displacement of L-thyroxine from thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). Endocrinology. 1962 Sep; 71 :496504. PubMed Ross JE, Tapley DF.Cheng V, et al. Surgery, 2015 Aug. PMID Transthyretin deposition in articular cartilage: a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis. Akasaki Y, et al. Arthritis Rheumatol, 2015 May. PMID 25940564, Tafamidis in transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: effects on transthyretin stabilization and clinical outcomes.
The lack of high affinity T4-binding proteins in fish (3 for example, may be teleologically attributed to the greater iodine abundance in their natural habitat. Liver perfusion studies suggest a third function, that facilitating the uniform cellular distribution of T4, allowing for changes in the circulating thyroid hormone level to be rapidly communicated to all.This is in keeping with other findings showing that the binding and release of T4 is not due to a switch from an on to an off conformation but rather results from an equilibrated change in plasticity of the binding site.
Non-integrin membrane-ECM interactions, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME ) Non-integrin membrane-ECM interactions, organism-specific biosystem Several non-integrin membrane proteins interact with extracellular matrix proteins. Transmembrane proteoglycans may associate with integrins and growth factor receptors to influence their function, o.The events in this process are p. Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description Markers GDB:217063 (e-PCR) GDB:568908 (e-PCR) GDB:192401 (e-PCR) GDB:568915 (e-PCR) GDB:192403 (e-PCR) GDB:568923 (e-PCR) GDB:186202 (e-PCR) GDB:186206 (e-PCR) GDB:186319 (e-PCR) GDB:186556 (e-PCR) GDB:177915 (e-PCR) GDB:176279 (e-PCR) GDB:176280 (e-PCR) GDB:176281 (e-PCR) GDB:181629 (e-PCR) GDB:196602 (e-PCR) Gene Ontology Provided by GOA Preferred Names.
Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME ) Visual phototransduction, organism-specific biosystem Visual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response.Thus the molecule can assume a high-affinity and a low-affinity conformation, a model proposed earlier by Grasberger et al (24). This reversibility is due to the unique presence of P8 proline in TBG, rather than a threonine in all other SERPIN s, limiting loop insertion.
In normal man, approximately 0.03 per cent of the total serum T4, and 0.3 per cent of the total serum T3 are present in free or unbound form (3,9). The major serum thyroid hormone-binding proteins are thyroxine-binding globulin TBG or thyropexin, transthyretin TTR or thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA and albumin (HAS, human serum albumin) (10). PubMed BRAVERMAN LE, INGBAR SH. BINDING OF 3,5,3' -L-TRIIODOTHYRONINE IN HUMAN SERUM DURING AGAR GEL ELECTROPHORESIS AT PH 7.4. Endocrinology. 1965 Mar; 76 :547549. PubMed Articles from The Journal of Clinical Investigation are provided here courtesy of American Society for Clinical Investigation).
THYROXINE -BINDING GLOBULIN (TBG) The molecule, structure and physical properties. TBG is a 54 kD acidic glycoprotein migrating in the inter-globulin zone on conventional electrophoresis, at pH 8.6. The term, thyroxine-binding globulin, is a misnomer since the molecule also binds T3 and reverse T3. A fourth function, modeled after the corticosteroid-binding globulin (5 is targeting the amount of hormone delivery by site specific, enzymatic, alteration of TBG. Indeed neutrophil derived elastase transforms TBG into a heat resistant, relaxed, form with reduced T4-binding affinity (6).