Zimmermann-Belsing T, Dreyer M, Holst JJ, et al. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 49(5), 589-95, (1998) Loading. Decreased translation of Dio3 mRNA is associated with drug-induced hepatotoxicity. Dudek KM, Suter L, Darras VM, et al.Furthermore, the direct pericellular environment adjacent to the apical plasma membrane of thyroid epithelial cells is oxidizing due to the presence of an H2O2 generating system which enables thyroid peroxidase to iodinate Tg at neutral pH 31, 32.
Endocrinology 154(7), 2533-41, (2013) Loading. Restoration of cardiac tissue thyroid hormone status in experimental hypothyroidism: a dose-response study in female rats. Weltman NY, Ojamaa K, Savinova OV, et al. Endocrinology 154(7), 2542-52, (2013) Loading.We have chosen a value of -150 mV to mimic the extracellular space which is slightly more oxidizing than the range of -160 mV to -170 mV that was reported for the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum 33.
Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 15490-5, (2007) Loading. Thyroid hormone activation in human vascular smooth muscle cells: expression of type II iodothyronine deiodinase. Mizuma H, Murakami M, and Mori M Circ.Biochem. J. 453(1), 71-82, (2013) Loading. FDA-approved drug labeling for the study of drug-induced liver injury. Minjun Chen et al Drug Discov. Today 16, 697-703, (2011) Loading. Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species.
Under physiological conditions, proteolysis of Tg leading to thyroid hormone liberation is accomplished by cysteine cathepsins in a sequential process starting with the solubilization of Tg from its covalently cross-linked macromolecular storage forms that fill the extracellular follicle lumen.As yet, there are only very few studies which consider both, pH values and redox potentials of the cleavage environment 21, 34. The assay described herein therefore employs buffers accounting for the conditions in the follicle lumen equivalent to the extracellular space or within endo-lysosomal compartments.
Nathan A Lack et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 8563-73, (2011) Loading. Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: interdisciplinary studies. Himms-Hagen J. FASEB J. 4(11), 2890-8, (1990) Loading. Metabolism of cortisol in anorexia nervosa.Conclusion. The results revealed distinct cleavage patterns at all conditions analyzed, indicating compartment-specific processing of thyroglobulin by cysteine cathepsins. In particular, proteolytic activity of cathepsin S towards the substrate thyroglobulin can now be understood as instrumental for extracellular thyroid hormone liberation.
Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010) Loading. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of liver-selective phosphonic acid thyroid hormone receptor agonists and their prodrugs. Serge H Boyer et al J.Intern. Med. 142(6), 412-24, (2005) Loading. A new class of high affinity thyromimetics containing a phenyl-naphthylene core. Jon J Hangeland et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 4579-84, (2005) Loading. Effects of growth hormone treatment on serum levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins 1-4 in postmenopausal women.
Ikegami K, Atsumi Y, Yorinaga E, et al. Endocrinology 156(2), 647-59, (2015) Loading. Multifaceted roles of BDNF and FGF2 in human striatal primordium development. An in vitro study. Sarchielli E, Marini M, Ambrosini S, et al.Med. Chem. 51, 7075-93, (2008) Loading. Measurement of triiodothyronine in urine. Yoshida K, Sakurada T, Kaise N, et al. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 132(4), 389-95, (1980) Loading. Histidines in potential substrate recognition sites affect thyroid hormone transport by monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8).
Invest. Dermatol. 71(3), 202-4, (1978) Loading. Thyroid receptor ligands. Part 8: Thyromimetics derived from N-acylated-alpha-amino acid derivatives displaying modulated pharmacological selectivity compared with KB-141. Neeraj Garg et al Bioorg. Med. Chem.Low-dose leptin reverses skeletal muscle, autonomic, and neuroendocrine adaptations to maintenance of reduced weight. Rosenbaum M, Goldsmith R, Bloomfield D, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 115(12), 3579-86, (2005) Loading. Management of the brain-dead organ donor: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Results The proteolytic potencies of cysteine cathepsins B, K, L and S towards thyroglobulin were analyzed under conditions simulating oxidizing versus reducing environments with neutral to acidic pH values. Thyroglobulin, the precursor molecule of thyroid hormones, was chosen as substrate, because it represents a natural target of cysteine cathepsins.By limited degradation, mediated by cysteine cathepsins within the pericellular space, Tg fragments are liberated and are subsequently endocytosed for degradation in endosomes and lysosomes. Thyroxine liberation by processing of the prohormone Tg starts extracellularly and is continued intracellularly after Tg-fragment internalization.
Kassem M, Brixen K, Mosekilde L, et al. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf.) 49(6), 747-56, (1998) Loading. Neuroendocrine recovery initiated by cognitive behavioral therapy in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: a randomized, controlled trial.Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010) Loading. Effect of triiodothyronine on mitochondrial energy coupling in human skeletal muscle. Lebon V, Dufour S, Petersen KF, et al.
QSAR study of selective ligands for the thyroid hormone receptor beta. Huanxiang Liu et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5251-61, (2007) Loading. In vitro responses of the epidermis to triiodothyronine. Holt PJ J.Peculiarities of thyroid pathology in the childhood. Buriak VN and Murashko ES Lik. Sprava (5), 58-63, (2012) Loading. Levels of unified metabolites and thyroid hormones in blood and oral fluid of children with minimal brain dysfunction.
Thyroglobulin processing involves thyroid hormone liberation which, under physiological circumstances, starts in the extracellular follicle lumen before being continued within endo-lysosomes. Our study shows that all cathepsins tested were capable of processing thyroglobulin at neutral and oxidizing conditions, although these are reportedly non-favorable for cysteine proteases.The initial substrate cleavage results in the production of smaller protein fragments that are internalized by thyroid epithelial cells together with partially processed Tg 6, 7. Accordingly, liberation of the thyroid hormones T 3 and T 4, which are essential for the regulation of mammalian development and metabolism begins extracellularly and is perpetuated within endocytic.
In reality, however, the extracellular space is not only a neutral but also an oxidizing environment, as much as endosomes and lysosomes exhibit not only acidic but also reducing conditions. In this study, we have chosen redox-values of -220 mV to mimic the reducing environment of the cysteine-rich endosomes and lysosomes 20 22.The follicle lumen is assumed to be neutral in pH thereby rendering Tg proteolysis by extracellular hydrolases unlikely (for reviews, see 26 28 ). However, more recently we provided evidence for Tg proteolysis mediated by cysteine cathepsins within the extracellular thyroid follicle lumen before its endocytosis 6, 7.
Nephrol. 27(1), 81-5, (1995) Loading. Nonthyroidal illness syndrome in acute bacterial endotoxicosis: pathogenesis and methods of correction. Iaglova NV Vestn. Ross. Akad. Med. Nauk (3), 24-32, (2013) Loading. Increased serum interleukin-33 levels in patients with Graves' disease.We assessed the suitability of such buffers to promote proteolytic cleavage of Tg by specific cysteine cathepsins in order to simulate proteolysis within thyroid follicles, i.e. within an extracellular compartment, or within the endo-lysosomes of thyrocytes (Figure 1 ).
Metab. 90(8), 4946-54, (2005) Loading. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy in primary hypothyroidism: a randomized trial comparing L-thyroxine plus liothyronine with L-thyroxine alone. Escobar-Morreale HF, Botella-Carretero JI, Gmez-Bueno M, et al. Ann.Vierhapper H, Kiss A, Nowotny P, et al. Acta Endocrinol. 122(6), 753-8, (1990) Loading. Long-term validity of biological markers of psychopathy and criminal recidivism: follow-up 6-8 years after forensic psychiatric investigation.
This study aims at elucidating crucial roles of select.In fact, cysteine cathepsins were often accredited as extracellularly acting enzymes in vivo (for reviews, see 10, 13 ). Diverse protocols are available that describe methods to perform activity assays of cysteine cathepsins at neutral conditions, usually after activation of the proteases by incubation with reducing agents 14 19.
Background Proteolytic processes are of vital importance due to the irreversibility of peptide bond cleavage. Spatio-temporal regulation of proteolysis is therefore of highest significance in determining the fate of cells. To date more than 66.500 gene sequences have been annotated as coding for proteolytic enzymes.Suggestions: If you are searching for shRNA or siRNA, please select the shRNA or siRNA below in the gene results otherwise no products found for Thyroxine. Browse By Product Category.
285, 14075-82, (2010) Loading. A Live Zebrafish-based Screening System For Human Nuclear Receptor Ligand And Cofactor Discovery. Tiefenbach, J., et al. PLoS ONE 5, e9797, (2010) Loading. Low temperature-induced circulating triiodothyronine accelerates seasonal testicular regression.Lett. 17, 4131-4, (2007) Loading. A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyroxine sulfate. Chopra IJ, Santini F, Hurd RE, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 76(1), 145-50, (1993) Loading. A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury.
J. Clin. Invest. 108(5), 733-7, (2001) Loading. REVIEW : Treatment of hypothyroidism with combinations of levothyroxine plus liothyronine. Escobar-Morreale HF, Botella-Carretero JI, Escobar del Rey F, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol.J. Clin. Invest. 86(3), 889-99, (1990) Loading. The relationship between the serum leptin concentrations of thyrotoxic patients during treatment and their total fat mass is different from that of normal subjects.
U. S. A. 110(15), 5881-6, (2013) Loading. Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene. Schwartz CE, May MM, Carpenter NJ, et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 77(1), 41-53, (2005) Loading.Braun D, Lelios I, Krause G, et al. Endocrinology 154(7), 2553-61, (2013) Loading. Nuclear receptor corepressor (NCOR 1) regulates in vivo actions of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor. Fozzatti L, Kim DW, Park JW, et al.
Reactive oxygen species play a role in muscle wasting during thyrotoxicosis. Bernardes SS, Guarnier FA, Marinello PC, et al. Cell Tissue Res. 357(3), 803-14, (2014) Loading. Targeting the binding function 3 (BF3) site of the human androgen receptor through virtual screening.Invest. 123(4), 1492-500, (2013) Loading. A surface on the androgen receptor that allosterically regulates coactivator binding. Eva Estbanez-Perpi et al Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 16074-9, (2007) Loading.