In this case, antibodies to thyroid antigens, as well as infiltration by cytotoxic T cells lead to destruction of thyroid tissue. Because the thyroid gland stores large amounts of thyroid hormone as thyroglobulin, a patient with Hashimotos thyroiditis may initially develop goiter, (which occurs due to inflammation rather than symptoms due to hypothyroidism.In many cases, diet and exercise can reverse symptoms. Symptoms: 1. Hyperglycemia 2. Polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia. 3. Ketoacidosis which can lead to diabetic coma and death. Hypersecretion of insulin - hyperinsulinism A tumor of the islet beta cells will cause an overproduction of insulin.
Hyposecretion of glucagon - chronic hypoglycemia A decreased ability to secrete glucagon from pancreatic alpha cells has been associated with chronic hypoglycemia. Other contributing factors to this condition would be: 1. A beta cell tumor 2. Patients may gain weight, feel sluggish and cold, and have a slowed heart rate. Hypothyroidism is treated with replacement therapy with thyroxine (T4).
Graves disease and Hashimotos thyroiditis. Iodine Deficiency Iodine is a trace mineral that is high in seafood, and is found in variable amounts in fruits and vegetables, depending on the iodine content of the local soil.In many parts of the world, the soils are naturally deficient in iodine, and iodine deficiency disorders due to hypothyroidism will occur without iodine supplementation. Thyroid hormone has a crucial role in the development of the nervous system, being involved in the growth of synapses and the formation of myelin.
Symptoms: 1. Low BMR and lower body temperature. 2. Increased fat deposition and lethargy 3. Low blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate 4. Goiter due to low levels of iodine in blood.2. Catabolism of body protein producing poor wound healing, easy bruising and muscular weakness. 3. Decreased immunity. 4. Hypernatremia leading to excessive water retention. 5. Hyperkalcemia and high blood pressure. 6.
2. Decalcification of bone which leads to fractures (osteitis fibrosa cystica). 3. Cardiac arrhythmias. 4. Tetany in skeletal muscles. Hyposecretion of parathyroid hormone The non-function of the parathyroid glands produces below normal levels of calcium in the blood.Acromegaly excessive appositional growth of the skeleton resulting in thickening of the digits and facial features lantern jaw" and protruding brow ridges). Increase in height does not occur since at the time of the onset of acromegaly the epiphyseal plates have calcified.
This condition is brought on by a pituitary adenoma. 2. Hypersecretion of adrenal steroids due to an adenoma of the adrenal cortex (20 of the cases) produces low levels of ACTH by negative feedback.A pituitary disease is a disorder primarily affecting the pituitary gland. The main. while overproduction (hypersecretion) of TSH will cause hyperthyroidism.
Hypersecretion of growth hormone - Giantism and Acromegaly. Myxedema occurs in the adult due to low thyroxine production. Gastrointestinal disorders 4.TSH stimulates all aspects of thyroid hormone synthesis; it also stimulates proliferation of follicle cells. When iodine in the diet is low but not too low, individuals may have goiter and yet be euthyroid, because the enlarged thyroid gland is better able to use the limited amount of iodine available.
Instead of causing destruction of the receptor, these antibodies act as agonists, stimulating the receptor to cause synthesis of T3 and T4, and proliferation of follicle cells. Negative feedback inhibition is increased, so the levels of TRH and TSH decrease, but this does not decrease thyroid hormone production because the stimulation of the thyroid gland.Because thyroid hormone increases basal energy expenditure, there is increased heat production and individuals will become heat intolerant. Individuals experience tachycardia (fast heart rate) because thyroid hormone affects expression of cardiac ion channels and contractile proteins so that the force and rate of the heart beat are both increased.
This is an example of how negative feedback regulation works to keep hormone secretion within the appropriate physiological range. Graves Disease Graves disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are produced that bind to the TSH receptor.In 25 of the cases, degeneration of the adrenal cortex is due to chronic TB. Autoimmune destruction of the cortical tissue is believed to be another cause. Symptoms: 1. Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia (low blood sodium) and hyperkalemia (high blood potassium).
Hyposecretion of cortisol caused by. adrenal gland disorder, too little ACTH. from anterior pituitary. Hypersecretion of thyroxine caused by. thyroid disorder, too.For this reason, beta-adrenergic antagonists may be used to relieve symptoms. Graves disease can be treated by drugs that inhibit thyroid hormone synthesis. Other treatment approaches involve reduction of thyroid tissue.
This is the consequence of an autoimmune destruction of islet beta cells. 2. Type II or late onset diabetes mellitus usually occurs in people who are over the age of 40 and overweight. Endemic cretinism is a disorder of cognitive development with reduced physical growth that occurs if thyroid hormone is deficient during gestation and early post-natal life. Endemic means prevalent in a particular region.
Oct 12, 2009. Th is actually two active iodine containing hormones, thyroxine T4 and. Disorders: hyposecretion in children causes pituitary dwarfism.Disorders of thyroid hormone secretion are second only to diabetes mellitus as the most common endocrine disorders. Throughout the world, the most common thyroid disorders are iodine deficiency disorders. In the United States and Canada, the use of iodized salt has eliminated iodine deficiency disorders, and the most common thyroid disorders are the autoimmune diseases.
Hyperpigmentation due to elevated levels of ACTH in the blood. Hypersecretion of adrenal steroids - Cushing's syndrome Chief causes of Cushing's syndrome: 1. Hypersecretion of ACTH - Pituitary Cushing's syndrome is responsible for 60 to 70 of these cases. Hyposecretion of insulin - Diabetes mellitus Due to a lack of insulin from nonfunctioning beta cells of the pancreatic islets. There are two primary forms of this disease: 1. Type I or juvenile onset diabetes mellitus generally occurs in people younger than 20 years (insulin dependent diabetes).
Symptoms: 1. High BMR and high body temperature with profuse sweating. 2. Increased appetite with weight loss. 3. Increased heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate. 4. Muscular tremor and nervousness 5. Endocrine Hormones and Disorders Hyposecretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone - Diabetes insipidus. Due to decreased production of anti-diuretic hormone in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Often associated with a head injury.
Measurement of low TSH levels is a key diagnostic test for hyperthyroidism. (This is because hyperthyroidism caused by pituitary hypersecretion of TSH is very rare.) The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in Graves disease are related to the effects of thyroid hormone on metabolism and cardiac function.Defect in the mechanism releasing glucose from the liver. 3. Addison's disease - low levels of corticosteroids which enhance glucose production. 4. Hyposecretion of growth hormone Hyposecretion of adrenal steroids - Addison's disease This is an uncommon disease since both adrenal glands must suffer a 90 loss of function before symptoms appear.